NEWS SCAN: Possible dengue clue, stopping guinea worm disease

first_img Researchers find possible cause of severe second dengue infectionsInfectious disease experts have long puzzled why people who are infected for a second time with a different strain of dengue virus have a more severe illness course, but new findings in the latest issue of Science may provide a clue. Researchers from Imperial College of London report that they have identified a set of antibodies called precursor membrane (prM) protein that “awaken” during the first infection and help infect more cells during the second infection, the college said in a press release. Dr Gavin Screaton, the study’s lead author, said in the statement that the findings will help with vaccine development, because scientists can avoid including prM in any future vaccines. “Our new research gives us some key information about what is and what is not likely to work when trying to combat the dengue virus,” he said. “We hope that our findings will bring scientists one step closer to creating an effective vaccine.” Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease found in tropical and subtropical regions. The virus occurs in four serotypes, and infection with one induces immunity only to that serotype. A second infection with a different serotype increases a person’s risk for dengue hemorrhagic fever, which involves bleeding and the possibility of life-threatening shock.May 6 Imperial College of London press releaseMay 7 Science abstract May 7, 2010 WHO reports progress toward eradicating guinea worm diseaseThe World Health Organization (WHO) said today that though the world won’t meet the goal of eradicating the parasitic disease dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) this year, significant progress has been made, with disease transmission interrupted in 8 of the 12 African countries where it is endemic. The WHO published a status report on dracunculiasis in today’s issue of its Weekly Epidemiologic Record. The disease is spread by drinking water that contains fleas that have ingested Dracunculus larvae, the WHO said. In humans, the larvae invade body tissues, where they grow before emerging through the skin. There is no vaccine or treatment, and the only prevention is protecting and filtering water sources. In 2004 at the World Health Assembly countries signed a declaration to eradicate the disease by 2010. In addition to the eight countries that have interrupted transmission, three more are close to reaching that goal, the WHO said. Sudan, with the world’s highest number of cases is the only country in which transmission interruption doesn’t appear to be a realistic near-term goal. The WHO said the passing of the eradication target date signals a need to reassess the situation and move forward with new efforts. It added that elimination is still a realistic goal.May 7 WHO Weekly Epidemiologic Record reportWHO dracunculiasis backgroundlast_img read more

Record $7.35bn Spent On Transfers In 2019 – FIFA

first_imgFootball clubs around the world spent a record $7.35bn (£5.6bn) on transfers according to a report by world governing body FIFA.The figure represents an increase of more than 5.8% on what was spent by clubs on transfers in 2018.English clubs led the way with a total transfer outlay of £1.5bn, which represented a 22.1% decrease from 2018.The women’s game witnessed a16.3% rise transfer spending with $652,032 (£497,000) spent  The United States had the most players – at almost 20% – of the 833 transfers made in the women’s game.The were 18,042 such moves – also a record – in the men’s game, involving 15,463 players of 178 different nationalities.“It is remarkable to see a new record number of transfers in the men’s market,” said FIFA chief legal and compliance officer Dr Emilio Garcia Silvero.“We observe, as well, increasing all-round figures in the women’s market, which is a sign of the positive overall development of women’s football over the last year which we trust will continue in 2020.”Key points from the men’s reportPermanent club-to-club transfers only represented 11.6% of all moves in 2019.The most common type of transfer was that of players out of contract, which was 64.3%.Brazil had the most clubs involved in international transfers with 306. Germany (144) was second, Spain third (130) and England (128) fourth.Brazil also had the highest number of incoming transfers with 831, while England had the highest number from Uefa countries with 694.English clubs spent £1.5bn, which was a 22.1% decrease from 2018 but still the most of any country.In terms of net value, Portugal generated the most with £384m, with England the worst in that category with minus £549.9m.Key points from the women’s report:The total number of international transfers went from 696 in 2018 to 833 in 2019.The number of moves for players out of contract was 86.3%.The number of associations involved in international transfers went from 74 to 86.There were 188 clubs from 45 different European associations involved in 646 international transfers, which was more than three quarters of the worldwide activity.Players moving from Australia to the US was the most common transfer and switches the other way around was the second most popular.Spain had the most number of incoming transfers with 104, with the US (72) second and England (57) in thirdRelatedManchester City Get Slap On The Wrist For Breaking FIFA Transfer RulesAugust 13, 2019In “England”Premier League Tops Transfer Spending In January WindowFebruary 12, 2020In “Europe”FIFA Bans Chelsea, Drops Heavy Fine On English FAFebruary 22, 2019In “England”last_img read more