Mixed Numbers at CDC

first_imgThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) would see a minuscule increase in total funding in the 2013 budget—$39 million—bringing its total to $11.2 billion. However, more than half of that total is not from discretionary funds but comes from other sources, including almost $4.3 billion for a mandatory program to vaccinate children. CDC’s discretionary budget would drop from $5.7 billion, the level of the past 2 years, to $5 billion in 2013. The agency is getting some extra wiggle room thanks to $903 million it would get from the “Prevention Fund,” money that comes through President Barack Obama’s health care legislation and that funds disease prevention at different levels of government. The Prevention Fund dollars will go, among other things, to promoting rapid detection of disease outbreaks and reducing the spread of various diseases. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

University Shutters Energy Institute in Wake of Fracking Controversy

first_img U.S. Energy Information Administration Gas boom. Expansion of drilling in U.S. shale gas deposits (outlined areas) had prompted the University at Buffalo to open a new research institute on the issue. But controversy over its first report has led to its closure. The University at Buffalo has closed a new institute devoted to the study of natural gas production after an outcry over a report the group published earlier this year. The Shale Resources and Society Institute was established at the school in April to study shale gas and hydrological fracturing, also known as fracking. The institute’s first report, released this past May, examined regulatory data from Pennsylvania to conclude that environmental problems from fracking “are being reduced … by enhanced regulation and improved industry practice.” The study drew criticism from inside and outside the university over its analysis of the data and for omitting certain biographical details about its authors, including the fact that two had previously been paid by industry groups or advised regulators. The furor only increased when the university was forced to correct a press release that suggested the report had been “peer-reviewed”; outside experts had reviewed it, officials later clarified, but it was published by the school and not by an independent publication. A university review released in September of the new institute found that the work complied with national and university standards for conflicts of interest. “The fact that the co-authors of the May 15 SRSI report have known industrial experience, having worked in the field for many years, in no way invalidates the results,” the review noted, adding that no data from the report had been found to be incorrect. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) But in an open letter published yesterday, university President Satish Tripathi wrote that an appearance of conflicts of interest played a role in the school’s decision to disband the institute, which had received funding only from internal sources at the university. “Research of such considerable societal importance and impact cannot be effectively conducted with a cloud of uncertainty over its work,” Tripathi wrote. “Conflicts-both actual and perceived- can arise between sources of research funding and expectations of independence when reporting research results. This, in turn, impacted the appearance of independence and integrity of the institute’s research.” Tripathi added that his school’s “policies that govern disclosure of significant financial interests and sources of support,” though strong, were “inconsistently applied” in this case, without providing detail. A committee has been set up to determine how to “strengthen and clarify” such policies. “Every faculty member has a responsibility to ensure that conclusions in technical reports or papers are unambiguous and supported by the presented data,”” he added. “I think it’s a pretty sad commentary when controversial issues can’t be discussed in an academic institution,” regulatory attorney George Rusk of Ecology and Environment, an environmental consulting firm in Lancaster, New York, tells ScienceInsider. Rusk had reviewed the May report and found it “factual, well-documented, with good data,” he says. Criticism of the report “really was a character attack on the people who wrote the report rather than a comment on the substance of the report itself,” he says. Professors at the university who were affiliated with the institute will keep their positions, the school said.last_img read more

Podcast: Making Crime Prevention Pay

first_imgBOSTON—Is violent crime more like polio or a car accident? Do we need a vaccine or many small adjustments such as better roads, driver education, and seatbelt laws? At a session here at the annual meeting of AAAS (which publishes ScienceNOW), economist Jens Ludwig of the University of Chicago argued that there is no one solution to violent crime and that small, light interventions can prevent violent crime and provide large returns on investment.last_img

Ebola is back … or never left

first_imgIt was a short-lived celebration. Just hours after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa over on Thursday, Sierra Leone reported a new case of the disease to WHO. A 22-year-old woman, who had died earlier in the week, had tested positive for the virus. WHO confirmed the case on Friday. “A joint team of local authorities, WHO, and partners are investigating the origin of the case, identifying contacts, and initiating control measures to prevent further transmission,” WHO said in a statement.The details of the case are troubling. The young woman was a student in Lunsar, a town in the district of Port Loko, says Christopher Dye of WHO. Around Christmas she traveled from there to Kambia district, closer to the border with Guinea, and stayed there until 6 January. “We suspect that was the time of onset of the illness,” Dye says. “Having become ill she decided to go home, and her family home is in Tonkalili.” The young woman went to a hospital but was not recognized as an Ebola case. “She got progressively worse and died. The process of preparing her body for burial and the burial itself were done unsafely,” Dye says. “That is of course not what we would have liked to have seen happen in light of all the Ebola cases we had.” As a consequence, there are a number of people who came into contact with the woman that are at high risk of having been infected with ebolavirus. There were 27 contacts listed on Thursday night, Dye says. “But I would almost certainly expect that figure to be revised upwards.” A vaccine produced by Merck that protected people from the deadly virus in a trial in Guinea last year may be given to these people and their contacts. “The plan is to do a ring vaccination with this vaccine,” Dye says. “Obviously it has to be done very quickly. There is vaccine available and there is support from the vaccine teams in Guinea, some of which will cross the border to help the health authorities in Sierra Leone carry out the vaccinations.” Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Even as WHO officials had announced on Thursday that for the first time in 2 years, West Africa was free of Ebola transmission, they had warned of the risk of flare-ups. Because ebolavirus can persist in some tissues and bodily fluids of survivors for months, there is a danger that they can pass the virus on to others, for instance, through unprotected sex. That also seems a likely explanation in the new case, says Vincent Munster, a virologist at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Hamilton, Montana. “I think we have to remain vigilant for quite some time”.The new case was discovered because the authorities in Sierra Leone routinely swab dead bodies for Ebola. That the case was not recognized earlier and the women had an unsafe burial point to weaknesses in the system, however, Dye says. “We’re really troubled by these things and there is a huge feeling of disappointment.” The testing of possible Ebola patients should be done just as effectively as the swabbing of bodies, he says.Sierra Leone was declared free of Ebola on 7 November 2015, and was in a 90-day period of heightened surveillance. Media reports that the woman who died of Ebola had gone to a hospital and been sent home call into question how prepared hospitals are in West Africa to deal with the virus even after the biggest Ebola outbreak on record.last_img read more

NSF director unveils big ideas, with an eye on the next president and Congress

first_imgBut the federal government isn’t the only possible source of funding, she added. “We either need to get that investment from new dollars appropriated by Congress, or hope to get on the agenda of one or more of the candidates during the campaign, or spark the imagination of groups in the private sector, including industry and foundations.”Córdova is counting on rank-and-file scientists to help sell the initiative by submitting more grant proposals that don’t fit traditional categories or are especially ambitious. “We want people to think about what’s missing, and how they would fill those gaps,” she says.The presidentially appointed science board didn’t need much convincing after listening to her presentation. “I’m blown away by what I just heard,” said Dan Arvizu, the board’s outgoing chair and recently retired director of the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. “It’s an intellectual exercise unparalleled in government, and demonstrates the value of NSF to the nation.”NSF is already drafting its budget request for the 2018 fiscal year, which starts in October 2017. But the next president will ultimately decide what goes to Congress, and may even have a say in NSF’s 2017 budget if Congress can’t complete its work before Inauguration Day on 20 January 2017.The list of ideas was finalized last month at a 2-day retreat of Córdova’s senior managers. They were asked to come up with two grand challenges facing the scientific disciplines their offices support, and told not to compare notes ahead of time. What eventually emerged both distilled and amalgamated those ideas.Shaping the human-technology frontier, for example, began as “probably four related proposals,” Córdova notes. But some of the ideas weren’t grand enough to make the final list. “They weren’t things that we were ready to do, or they didn’t have broad community appeal.” Córdova says she wasn’t looking for a particular number of items for the list, but “the nine that came out covered the waterfront of really big ideas.”The six “research” ideas are intended to stimulate cross-disciplinary activity and take on important societal challenges. Exploring the human-technology frontier, for example, reflects NSF’s desire “to weave in technology throughout the fabric of society, and study how technology affects learning,” says Joan Ferrini-Mundy, who runs NSF’s education directorate. She thinks it will also require universities to change how they educate the next generation of scientists and engineers.Other ideas on the list with no obvious short-term applications are meant to capitalize on newly available research tools. The “windows on the universe” frontier, for example, will build on the recent detection of gravitational waves, explains Fleming Crim, NSF’s head of mathematics and physical sciences. “We’ve thought for a long time about doing electromagnetic, particle, and gravitational-wave observations,” Crim says. “And now we have all the pieces.”The three “process” ideas include a new no-strings-attached pot of money to seed all manner of fresh ideas. Córdova compared it to the Common Fund at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), created several years ago within the director’s office to encourage scientists to think outside the box.“It started with money NIH had pooled,” she notes, “but Congress really liked it, and [the Common Fund] has grown.” Once a new NSF initiative “gets traction,” she says, it would likely be handed over to one of the agency’s seven directorates.Here is a list of the nine big ideas:Research France Córdova, the director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in Arlington, Virginia, has unveiled a research agenda intended to shape the agency’s next few decades and win over the next U.S. president and Congress.The nine big ideas (see list below) illustrate how increased support for the type of basic research that NSF funds could help answer pressing societal problems, she says, ranging from how humans interact with technology to how climate change in the polar regions will impact the global economy, environment, and culture. (Click here for a one-page description of each idea.) It’s unusual for a federal agency to talk publicly about its long-range budget plans, Córdova acknowledges. But she is betting that touting the agency’s capabilities during an election year will pay dividends after voters have chosen a successor to President Barack Obama.“This comes at a time of transition,” she told the National Science Board, NSF’s oversight body, on 6 May. “So that makes it a great opportunity for NSF to present a menu of the things it can do.” And NSF’s current budget of $7.46 billion is insufficient to tackle these questions, Córdova told Science after the meeting. “We can’t do any of these things without future investments. So yes, we need an infusion of money.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Process Harnessing data for 21st century science and engineering Shaping the human-technology frontier Understanding the rules of life (i.e., predicting phenotypes from genotypes) The next quantum revolution (physics) Navigating the new Arctic (including a fixed and mobile observing network) Windows on the universe: multimessenger astrophysics More convergent research Support for midscale infrastructure (costing tens of millions of dollars) NSF 2050 (i.e., a common fund to seed large, ambitious projects)last_img read more

Top stories: How Dylan made his mark on science, the origins of the ‘bear dog,’ and naked mole rats that feel no pain

first_imgBob Dylan, the songwriter scientists love to quote, just won a Nobel PrizeOne of scientists’ favorite singer-songwriters just won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Bob Dylan, whose lyrics have been quoted, paraphrased, or cited in hundreds of papers and letters in the biomedical research literature alone, was awarded the prize for “having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition.” Even for researchers born decades after the 75-year-old musician, Dylan’s lines seem to stay forever young. For example, a 2015 analysis published in The BMJ found 213 references in a biomedical journals database that could be “classified as unequivocally citing Dylan.”‘Bear dogs’ once lived in southern TexasSign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Fragmentary fossils found in southwestern Texas 3 decades ago belong to a strange group of extinct animals known as “bear dogs,” according to a new study. Though only about the size of a Chihuahua when they first appeared, some creatures in this group of carnivorous mammals evolved to become top predators in their ecosystems tens of millions of years ago. The study also suggests that bear dogs could have originated in this part of North America, which may have been a hot spot of evolution for the group.Alien life could feed on cosmic raysA bizarre microbe found deep in a gold mine in South Africa could provide a model for how life might survive in seemingly uninhabitable environments through the cosmos. Known as Desulforudis audaxviator, the rod-shaped bacterium thrives 2.8 kilometers underground in a habitat devoid of all that powers the vast majority of life on Earth—light, oxygen, and carbon. Instead, this “gold mine bug” gets energy from radioactive uranium in the depths of the mine. Now, scientists predict that life elsewhere in the universe might also feed off radiation, especially the radiation raining down from space.How naked mole rats conquered pain—and what it could mean for usAlthough it has a face—and a body—that only a mother could love, the naked mole rat has a lot to offer biomedical science. It lives 10 times longer than a mouse, almost never gets cancer, and doesn’t feel pain from injury and inflammation. Now, researchers say they’ve figured out how the rodents keep this pain away, a discovery that could inspire better human treatments.We care when an airplane crashes. And then we don’tOn 19 May, EgyptAir Flight 804 crashed into the Mediterranean Sea, killing all 56 passengers and 10 crew members aboard. The Wikipedia entry documenting the disaster went up within hours, and it will likely remain online into perpetuity. Human readers, however, lost interest after about a week. A pair of new studies reveals that’s common whether an aircraft crash kills 50 people or 500—a finding that reveals some surprises about our online attention spans.Now that you’ve got the scoop on this week’s hottest Science news, come back Monday to test your smarts on our weekly quiz!last_img read more

India nears approval of first GM food crop

first_imgAn Indian advisory committee has cleared a genetically modified mustard for commercial use. By Pallava BaglaMay. 15, 2017 , 11:15 AM Amidst acrimonious debate over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food crops, India’s top biotechnology regulator last week declared a transgenic mustard plant “safe for consumption.” Moving the plant into farmers’ fields is now a political decision in the hands of India’s environment minister, who may wait until the Supreme Court of India resolves several long-pending related cases.The GM mustard has been under development for almost a decade. A report assessing the plant’s risks was released a year ago, drawing some 700 comments that were reviewed by the Ministry of Environment’s Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC). The report concluded the mustard was safe and nutritious, and GEAC chair Amita Prasad in New Delhi says the commission unanimously agreed on 11 May to recommend allowing farmers to plant the crop for the next 4 years. The final decision will be made by Environment Minister Anil Dave.The GM mustard was developed with public funding by plant scientist Deepak Pental of the University of Delhi. His team introduced several genes from a soil bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, into the mustard to facilitate hybridization. Mustard is largely a self-pollinating crop and creating high-yield hybrids has been cumbersome. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) If approved, Dhara Mustard Hybrid-11 (DMH-11) will be the second GM plant—but the first food crop—to reach India’s farmers. In 2004 India allowed commercial cultivation of GM cotton and it now accounts for more than 90% of the nation’s harvest. In 2010, GM eggplant also cleared GEAC’s review, but then–Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh put an indefinite moratorium on its introduction citing safety concerns.The New Delhi–based Coalition for a GM-free India is fighting the introduction of the transgenic mustard. The group blasted the GEAC’s decision, claiming in a letter to Dave that the committee “has shown itself to be anti-science, anti-farmers, anti-environment and anti-consumers.”Sources indicate that the minister may delay a decision until India’s Supreme Court rules in cases, pending since 2005, that question the safety of GM crops. The court has set no date for issuing a decision.center_img sj liew/Flickr (CC BY NC ND 2.0) India nears approval of first GM food croplast_img read more

Most archaeologists think the first Americans arrived by boat. Now, they’re beginning to prove it

first_img Lizzie Wade By Lizzie WadeAug. 10, 2017 , 2:00 PM Graphic: G. Grullón/Science ON CEDROS ISLAND IN MEXICO—Matthew Des Lauriers got the first inkling that he had stumbled on something special when he pulled over on a dirt road here, seeking a place for his team to use the bathroom. While waiting for everyone to return to the car, Des Lauriers, then a graduate student at the University of California, Riverside, meandered across the landscape, scanning for stone tools and shell fragments left by the people who had lived on the island in the past 1500 years.As he explored, his feet crunched over shells of large Pismo clams—bivalves that he hadn’t seen before on the mountainous island, 100 kilometers off the Pacific coast of Baja California. The stone tools littering the ground didn’t fit, either. Unlike the finely made arrow points and razor-sharp obsidian that Des Lauriers had previously found on the island, these jagged flakes had been crudely knocked off of chunky beach cobbles.”I had no idea what it meant,” says Des Lauriers, now a professor at California State University (Cal State) in Northridge. Curiosity piqued, he returned for a test excavation and sent some shell and charcoal for radiocarbon dating. When Des Lauriers’s adviser called with the results, he said, “You should probably sit down.” The material dated from nearly 11,000 to more than 12,000 years ago—only a couple thousand years after the first people reached the Americas.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)That discovery, in 2004, proved to be no anomaly; since then, Des Lauriers has discovered 14 other early sites and excavated two, pushing back the settlement of Cedros Island to nearly 13,000 years ago. The density of early coastal sites here “is unprecedented in North America,” says archaeologist Loren Davis of Oregon State University in Corvallis, who joined the project in 2009.The Cedros Island sites add to a small but growing list that supports a once-heretical view of the peopling of the Americas. Whereas archaeologists once thought that the earliest arrivals wandered into the continent through a gap in the ice age glaciers covering Canada, most researchers today think the first inhabitants came by sea. In this view, maritime explorers voyaged by boat out of Beringia—the ancient land now partially submerged under the waters of the Bering Strait—about 16,000 years ago and quickly moved down the Pacific coast, reaching Chile by at least 14,500 years ago.Findings such as those on Cedros Island bolster that picture by showing that people were living along the coast practically as early as anyone was in the Americas. But these sites don’t yet prove the coastal hypothesis. Some archaeologists argue that the first Americans might have entered via the continental interior and turned to a maritime way of life only after they arrived. “If they came down an interior ice-free corridor, they could have turned right, saw the beaches of California, and said, ‘To hell with this,’” says archaeologist David Meltzer of Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. Most archaeologists think the first Americans arrived by boat. Now, they’re beginning to prove it Matthew Des Lauriers transforms a beach cobble into a type of stone tool used by people who lived on Cedros Island nearly 13,000 years ago. These people lived near freshwater springs but relied on the sea, dining on fish, sea mammals, and seabirds. That makes the coastal route the first Americans’ most likely—or perhaps only—path. It would have been inviting, says Knut Fladmark, a professor emeritus of archaeology at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada, one of the first to propose a coastal migration into the Americas back in 1979. “The land-sea interface is one of the richest habitats anywhere in the world,” he says. Early Americans apparently knew how to take full advantage of its abundant resources. At Monte Verde, once 90 kilometers from the coast, archaeologist Tom Dillehay of Vanderbilt University in Nashville found nine species of edible and medicinal seaweed dated to about 14,000 years ago.On Cedros Island, artifacts suggest that people found diverse ways to make a living from the sea. That isn’t a given because 13,000 years ago, the island was connected to the mainland, hanging off the Baja peninsula like a hitchhiker’s outstretched thumb; early sites cluster around freshwater springs that would have been several kilometers inland back then. But Des Lauriers’s work reveals that the Cedros Islanders ate shellfish, sea lions, elephant seals, seabirds, and fish from all sorts of ocean environments, including deep-water trenches accessible only by boat.In addition to making fishhooks, the island’s inhabitants fashioned beach cobbles into crude scrapers and hammers—”disposable razors,” as Des Lauriers, a stone tool expert, calls them. Such tools are best for scraping and cutting plant fibers, suggesting that the islanders were processing agave into fishing lines and nets. Researchers have found a similar suite of tools at other early sites along the Pacific coast, hinting that fishing technologies were widespread even though the organic nets, lines, and boats likely decayed long ago.Certain tool types found here suggest even more distant connections. Des Lauriers often finds stemmed points, a style of spear point found from Japan to Peru and perhaps used on the island to hunt sea mammals and native pygmy deer. The shell fishhooks even resemble the world’s oldest known fishhooks, which were crafted from the shells of sea snails on Okinawa in Japan about 23,000 years ago.Although the evidence of a widespread, sophisticated maritime way of life along the ancient Pacific coast—what Meltzer calls “Hansel and Gretel leaving a trail of artifacts”—is provocative, it can’t prove the coastal migration theory, he says. The oldest sites on Cedros Island are younger than the first Clovis spear points used to bring down big game on the mainland.But older coastal sites are beginning to turn up. This year Dillehay announced the discovery of a nearly 15,000-year-old site at Huaca Prieta, about 600 kilometers north of Lima. Its earliest residents lived in an estuary 30 kilometers from the Pacific shoreline but still ate mostly shark, seabirds, marine fish, and sea lions, and their artifacts resemble those at other coastal sites. “I was stunned how similar [the tools of Huaca Prieta] were to [those of] Cedros Island,” Davis says.Still, pinning down the coastal migration theory will take a string of well-dated sites beginning before 15,000 years ago in southeastern Alaska or British Columbia in Canada and extending through time down the coast. To find them, archaeologists will have to take the plunge.Loren Davis tries to stay steady as he makes his way into a laboratory aboard the research vessel Pacific Storm. The archaeologist was desperately seasick in his cabin for 2 days in late May as the 25-meter-long ship fought rough seas more than 35 kilometers off the Oregon coast. With Davis laid low, his team members scanned the ocean floor with sound waves.They are seeking the now-flooded landscape ancient maritime explorers would have followed on their journey south, when today’s coastlines were dozens of kilometers inland. Some coastal travelers did eventually turn landward, as shown by early inland sites such as Oregon’s Paisley Caves, which yielded a 14,200-year-old human coprolite. But the earliest chapters of any coastal migration are almost certainly underwater.Sixteen thousand years later, it’s tempting to envision such a migration as a race from beach to beach. But as people expanded into the uninhabited Americas, they had no destination in mind. They stopped, settled in, ventured beyond what they knew, and backtracked into what they did. So the first step for archaeologists is to figure out where, exactly, those early mariners would have chosen to stick around.The decision likely came down to one resource: freshwater. “Water is the lifeblood of everything,” Davis says. So he has been painstakingly mapping the probable courses of ancient rivers across the now-drowned coastline, hoping that those channels are still detectable, despite now being filled with sediment and covered by deep ocean.As team members pulled up early results to show Davis during May’s cruise, a black line representing the present-day sea floor squiggled horizontally across the screen. Then it diverged into two lines, a gap like a smile opening across the image: An ancient river channel lay below the modern sea floor, right where Davis’s model had predicted. “If I hadn’t been so sick—and if there had been alcohol on the ship—that would have been a champagne moment,” he says. “We can [now] begin to visualize where the hot spots [of human occupation] are probably going to be.”This summer, Davis’s colleague Amy Gusick, an archaeologist at Cal State in San Bernardino, used one of his maps to take the first sample from another probable hot spot: a drowned river off the coast of California’s Channel Islands. Terrestrial sites on the islands have already yielded 13,000-year-old human bones as well as characteristically coastal stone tools. But since then, the rising sea has inundated 65% of the islands’ ancient area. Gusick and her colleagues are confident that submerged sites, possibly even older than the ones on land, exist off today’s coast.In June, she used a 5-meter sampling tube to pierce what Davis’s map told her was the ancient riverbank. The muck she collected will reveal whether ancient soil, perhaps including plant remains, pollen, animal bones, or human artifacts, can still be recovered from deep underwater. Eventually, Gusick hopes to understand the drowned landscape well enough to pick out anomalies on the sonar map—possible shell middens or houses—and target them for coring that might bring up artifacts and the organic material needed to date them. A date of 15,000 years or older would show that before the ice-free corridor fully opened, adept mariners had explored the Channel Islands, which were never connected to the mainland and could be reached only by boat.”This is the biggest scientific effort to move us down the road to answering this question” of how and when people settled the Americas, says Todd Braje, an archaeologist at San Diego State University in California, one of the leaders of the coring project. “Those submerged landscapes are really the last frontier for American archaeology,” says Jon Erlandson, an anthropologist at the University of Oregon in Eugene who has excavated on the Channel Islands for decades and also is part of the project.All the same, to make a definitive case for the coastal route, researchers must find pre-Clovis coastal sites in the doorway to the Americas itself: on the shores of southeastern Alaska or British Columbia. Luckily, archaeologists working there may not even have to go underwater to do it. The evidence that might settle the question has been mostly out of reach. As the glaciers melted starting about 16,500 years ago, global sea level rose by about 120 meters, drowning many coasts and any settlements they held. “We are decades into the search for coastal dispersers, and we’re still waiting for solid evidence or proof,” says Gary Haynes, an archaeologist at the University of Nevada in Reno, who thinks the first Americans likely took an inland route.The hunt for that evidence is now in high gear. A dedicated cadre of archaeologists is searching for maritime sites dating to between 14,000 and 16,000 years ago, before the ice-free corridor became fully passable. They’re looking at the gateway to the Americas, along stretches of the Alaskan and Canadian coasts that were spared the post–ice age flooding. They are even looking underwater. And on Cedros Island, Des Lauriers is helping fill in the picture of how early coastal people lived and what tools they made, details that link them to maritime cultures around the Pacific Rim and imply that they were not landlubbers who later turned seaward. “All eyes are on the coast,” Meltzer says.On a sunny June day, Des Lauriers crouches in a gully here, bracing himself against the wind blowing off the ocean. He leans over to examine what could be a clue to how people lived here 12,000 years ago: a delicate crescent of shell glinting in the sun. A few centimeters away, a sharply curved shell point lies broken in two pieces. Des Lauriers knows he’s looking at the remains of an ancient fishhook. He has already found four others on the island. One of those, at about 11,500 years old, is the oldest fishhook discovered in the Americas, as reported this summer in American Antiquity.Des Lauriers wasn’t planning to collect artifacts on this trip, but the shell fishhook is too precious to leave to the elements. His team scrambles for anything they can use to package the delicate artifact. Someone produces a roll of toilet paper, and Des Lauriers scoops up the fragments with his trowel and eases them onto the improvised padding. Each fragment is wrapped snuggly and slipped into a plastic bag.Twenty years ago, most archaeologists believed the first Americans were not fishermen, but rather big-game hunters who had followed mammoths and bison through the ice-free corridor in Canada. The distinctive Clovis spear points found at sites in the lower 48 states starting about 13,500 years ago were thought to be their signature. But bit by bit, the Clovis-first picture has crumbled.The biggest blow came in 1997, when archaeologists confirmed that an inland site at Monte Verde in Chile was at least 14,500 years old—1000 years before Clovis tools appeared. Since then, several more pre-Clovis sites have come to light, and the most recent date from Monte Verde stretches back to 18,500 years ago, although not all researchers accept it. Genetic evidence from precontact South American skeletons now suggests that the earliest Americans expanded out of Beringia about 16,000 years ago.Not only were the Clovis people not the first to arrive, but many researchers also doubt the first Americans could have made it by land. Glaciers likely covered the land route through western Canada until after 16,000 years ago, according to recent research that dated minerals in the corridor’s oldest sand dunes. Another study showed that bison from Alaska and the continental United States didn’t mingle in the corridor until about 13,000 years ago, implying that the passage took at least 2000 years to fully open and transform into a grassland welcoming to megafauna and their human hunters. Photos: (Left to right) Joanne McSporran; Matthew Des Lauriers Researchers tracking ancient coastal dwellers found 13,200-year-old human footprints on Calvert Island in British Columbia (left) and the Americas’ oldest fishhook (right) on Cedros Island. About 13,200 years ago, someone strolled through the intertidal zone just above the beach on Calvert Island, off the coast of British Columbia, leaving footprints in the area’s wet, dense clay. When high tide rolled in, sand and gravel filled the impressions, leaving a raised outline. Layers of sediment built up over the millennia, preserving the barely eroded footprints under half a meter of earth.Daryl Fedje, an archaeologist at the University of Victoria (UVic) and the Hakai Institute on Quadra Island in Canada, spotted that outline while excavating on the beach in 2014. Since then, he and his UVic and Hakai colleague Duncan McLaren have documented 29 of those footprints beneath Calvert’s beaches. A piece of wood embedded in a footprint’s fill provided the radiocarbon date. “It raises the hairs on the back of your neck,” says McLaren, who in April presented the footprints at the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology in Vancouver, Canada.Such an intimate view of early coastal Americans is possible on Calvert Island because of a geological quirk. The melting ice sheets flooded coastlines elsewhere. But when the coasts of British Columbia and southeastern Alaska were suddenly freed from the weight of the nearby glaciers, parts of the underlying crust began to rebound, lifting some islands high enough to largely escape the flood.To maximize their chances of finding ancient sites, McLaren, Fedje, and their UVic colleague Quentin Mackie have spent decades mapping the local sea level changes along the coast of British Columbia. On Calvert Island, where the footprints were discovered, sea level rose only 2 meters. Around nearby Quadra Island, local sea level actually fell, stranding ancient shorelines in forests high above modern beaches. There, “potentially the entire history of occupation is on dry land,” Mackie says.The painstaking work required to identify and search those ancient coastlines is paying off with a march of increasingly older dates from the British Columbia coast. The remains of an ancient bear hunt—spear points lying in a cluster of bear bones—in Gaadu Din cave on the Haida Gwaii archipelago date to 12,700 years ago. The Calvert footprints stretch back 13,200 years. And a cluster of stone tools next to a hearth on Triquet Island is 14,000 years old—the region’s oldest artifact so far, according to radiocarbon dates from the hearth’s charcoal. Although reports about the footprints and the Triquet tools have yet to be peer reviewed, several archaeologists say they are impressed by the British Columbia team’s approach. “They’re looking in exactly the right place,” Erlandson says.Despite the proliferating evidence for the coastal route, not everyone is ready to discount the ice-free corridor entirely. The region has barely been studied and is ripe for “interesting surprises,” says John Ives, an archaeologist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. For example, the corridor may not have been a welcoming grassland until 14,000 years ago, but Haynes says it is naïve to assume that people couldn’t have ventured into the corridor as soon as the ice was gone. Before grass took root, “the inland corridor route would have been full of freshwater sources, seasonally migrating or resident waterfowl by the millions, and large and small mammals exploring new ranges,” he says. “Eastern Beringia’s inland foragers of 14,000 years ago were descendants of expert pioneers and could have traveled far south on foot.”And so the hunt continues. Before breakfast one morning on Cedros Island, Des Lauriers spreads out satellite images of the island’s southern edge. Most of the land appears as brown pixels, as one would expect from a desert island. But here and there, clusters of blue pixels appear—signs of moisture in the ground. Find the springs, Des Lauriers knows, and he’ll find the people.Davis and the rest of the team pile into the back of a pickup truck, and Des Lauriers follows a dirt path to a spring he hasn’t visited before. The patch of green lies at the bottom of a steep-sided arroyo, which is otherwise bone dry. Algae cover the surface of a meter-deep pool. The dark soil is rich with organic matter, unusual for arid Cedros Island and possibly indicating an ancient settlement. Stone tools characteristic of the earliest islanders dot the surface. “There’s a lot of stuff here, Matt,” Davis calls to Des Lauriers. “It’s punching all the boxes.”Interspersed with the recognizably early tools are things neither of them has seen on the island before: large, striated scallop shells belonging to a species known as mano de león (lion’s paw). Today those scallops live in lagoons east of here, on the coast of the Baja peninsula. Des Lauriers says he suspects that similar lagoons connected Cedros Island to the mainland before 13,000 years ago. Were people here early enough to visit such lagoons? Could those shells be hinting at a phase of settlement even older than the one signaled by the Pismo clams 13 years ago?To find out, Des Lauriers will have to wait until the team excavates and takes samples for radiocarbon dating. He records the site’s GPS coordinates and then, just as people have done here for millennia, sets off up the arroyo in search of the next source of freshwater.*Correction, 24 January 2018, 1:40 p.m.: An earlier version of this article misstated the area in Alaska involved in the archaeologists’ work.last_img read more

A surfer and a scientist teamed up to create the perfect wave

first_imgA surfer and a scientist teamed up to create the perfect wave The hydrofoil moves up the pool to create a wave that breaks from right to left. Giant gutters serve as dampers to reduce the seiching and limit bounce back from the walls that border the pool, but it takes 3 minutes for the waters to calm. Then the hydrofoil travels back down the pool and forms a wave that breaks in the opposite direction. The ride can last for a ridiculously long 50 seconds, and the wave alternates between big faces to carve on and barreling sections. Onlookers hooted wildly during that September contest when Stephanie Gilmore, who has won the women’s title six times, stayed in the barrel for an astonishing 14 seconds.Aside from providing a novel contest format—organizers of the Olympics have taken note—the wave could serve as a training platform for high-level surfers and a controlled setting for beginners to learn. The commercial potential led WSL Holdings, the parent company behind the Championship Tour, to buy a controlling interest in Slater’s wave company. But some see a multimillion-dollar novelty project that’s commercially doomed. “The wave is fantastic, epic, everyone would love to surf it for sure,” says Tom Lochtefeld, a San Diego, California, inventor whose company Wave Loch produces the FlowRider, a “sheet” of water ridden on what looks like a snowboard. “But it’s an evolutionary dinosaur.”Lochtefeld, whose FlowRider is in 200 venues, contends the hydrofoil scheme has too many mechanical elements. “It’s fraught with breakdowns,” he says. “And when you have that class of energy transfer and that much water in motion, the pool gets so screwed up.” Nor would it be a moneymaker, he says. By Lochtefeld’s calculation, you need to create a wave at least every 10 seconds—or at least a million waves per year—to make a profit on an artificial surfing wave. Wavegarden, a Spain-based company that makes ocean-like waves ridden on regular boards and is open to the public at two locations, boasts that it can produce waves every 4 seconds.But WSL Holdings—which won’t reveal how much it has invested or what it costs to run the Surf Ranch—does not plan to sell rides on waves per se. In addition to holding pro contests, the company hopes to build surf parks with hotels, concert venues, and retailers. JON COHEN ADAM FINCHAM AND ALEX POIROT 4 Researchers in Fincham’s field are as impressed as the surfers are. Olivier Eiff, a mechanical engineer who specializes in environmental fluid mechanics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany, says scientists who study waves typically focus on their effects on erosion, the exchange of gases between ocean and air, and waterfront structures. But he can’t name a single colleague who sculpts waves, a daunting challenge in fluid dynamics. “It’s an incredible job,” Eiff says. “I don’t know anybody else who has the guts to attack the complexity of such a big problem.”If similar wave pools are built around the globe, as Surf Ranch backers hope, they could fundamentally alter the surf world. On the surfing blogosphere, loud worries have already surfaced that “Kelly’s wave” strips out surfing’s natural allure and could breed obnoxious hordes of newbies who will further crowd ocean breaks. But the awestruck far outnumber the naysayers. “I see the day when the world’s best surfer is from Little Rock, Arkansas,” says 1968 world champion Fred Hemmings of Kailua, Hawaii. “This is the start of a huge revolution.” V. ALTOUNIAN/SCIENCE Barrel 1. The quest They aimed to sculpt a surfing wave that alternated between having a large “face” to make turns on and a “barrel” that surfers could ride inside. If you don’t have someone who’s passionate about things, they’re not going to do it differently than someone who’s done it before. 3700 m150 m Face 2. The hydrofoil A huge metal contraption pulled along a track that runs the length of the pool both pushes and pulls the water to form a swell. © WSL/SEAN ROWLAND Surf’s upA scientist teamed up with a world-famous surfer to engineer the most alluring artificial surfing wave ever created. KELLY SLATER WAVE COMPANY LEMOORE, CALIFORNIA—“You should’ve been here yesterday.”That’s a repeated gag line in The Endless Summer, the classic 1966 documentary that follows two globetrotting surfers on a quest to find the perfect wave. Good surfing waves are a rarity, and even when all the forces come together, the magic is fleeting. Few beaches have a bottom contour that can transform a swell into waves that surfers want to ride, and even then, the vagaries of the swell—its size, angle, periodicity—mixed with ever-changing winds and tides mean great surf sessions are few and far between.In central California farm country, 175 kilometers from the nearest beach, a champion surfer and a fluid mechanics specialist have teamed up to change that. In a 700-meter-long artificial lake, they’ve devised a system that drags a carefully shaped metal blade called a hydrofoil through the water. As the resulting swell sweeps over the lakebed, which scientists precisely contoured with the help of supercomputers, it is transformed into a surfing wave of unearthly perfection—again and again and again.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Professional surfers, used to the fickle ocean, are astonished by the waves conjured up by Adam Fincham, a researcher at the University of Southern California (USC) in Los Angeles, and Kelly Slater, who has won the world title in surfing an unprecedented 11 times.Last September, 18 pro surfers came to what’s called the Surf Ranch to compete in the Future Classic. The contest was meant to assess whether the pool—which is not open to the public—can serve as a competition venue for the World Surf League’s (WSL’s) Championship Tour that’s staged at top-notch breaks around the world. The mock contest, sponsored by the World Surf League (WSL) that governs professional surfing—and is co-owned by billionaire Dirk Ziff—included judges, announcers, and jumbo screen monitors that featured each wave and slow-motion replays. “The experience they’ve created for surfers with this wave is second to none,” said competitor Adrian Buchan, who is currently ranked 15th on this year’s WSL Championship Tour.center_img Pro surfer Matt Wilkinson stylishly slotted himself into the barrel of the artificial Surf Ranch wave. Fincham is, by several accounts, wildly creative and dogged. He’s published works on such esoteric-sounding topics as digital particle imaging velocimetry for laser diagnostics to decaying grid turbulence in a rotating stratified fluid. But Slater jokes that he and Fincham both have a touch of obsessive-compulsive disorder. “If you don’t have someone who’s passionate about things, they’re not going to do it differently than someone who’s done it before,” Slater says.Tanks in labs typically make waves a few centimeters tall, which can be modeled with linear equations: What you put in reliably predicts what’s produced.But trying to mimic a larger swell by generating steep waves unleashes nonlinear forces, including turbulence; a thin, slow-moving layer atop the swell (“the boundary layer”); and oscillations of the entire water body called seiching. “Nonlinearity is everywhere,” Eiff says—which makes it fiendishly difficult to plot out an artificial wave.The scientific literature on wave sculpting doesn’t run deep. Fincham and Slater’s U.S. patent applications reference just two scientific papers about waves, both written by prominent physicists/mathematicians in the 1870s. So aside from other patent filings on surfing waves, Fincham and Slater were largely on their own.They began in a laboratory wave tank. Whereas many wave pools use paddles, plungers, caissons, or other strategies to effectively throw water into the air, Fincham’s team designed a hydrofoil that is partially submerged in water. As it cuts through the pool, the hydrofoil moves water to the side (but not upward) and then pulls back on the forming wave to “recover” some of the water it pushed away. The result is what physicists call a solitary wave, or soliton, that mimics an individual swell in the open ocean. 3. The dampers The making and breaking of each wave cause the entire pool to oscillate. Water also bounces off the sides. Gulleys serve as dampers to calm the water before a new wave is made. By Jon CohenNov. 8, 2017 , 4:00 PM 2 1 Slater envisions that wealthy surfers might want to buy into luxury, private resorts built around a wave, similar to the Discovery Land Company’s high-end golf communities around the world. And Fincham and crew have wave improvements in the works, including testing different reefs, increasing the swell size, and even adding giant fans to control the wind.One day, Fincham predicts, it may be possible to make a surfing wave that allows now unthinkable maneuvers, like a loop-de-loop in the barrel. “We’ve got the perfect natural wave, and, well, that’s cool,” he says. “But what about a supernatural wave that almost defies nature?”Then again, there’s something supernatural about the wave they’ve already created. Ask the select few who have visited the Surf Ranch and seen the wave break. They aren’t wistfully telling their friends about what they saw yesterday. They’re talking about having seen tomorrow. 4. The reefs The pool’s bottom has carefully calculated con-tours of different depths and dimensions that give the wave its shape. Wave pools for surfing date back more than 50 years, but even the best pale in comparison to a good ocean surf spot. In the ocean, storms create surface gravity waves that roll along in deep water and only interact with the bottom, or shoal, when the water depth is about half the length of the distance between successive crests (the wavelength). Three things then happen: The wavelength shortens, the height increases, and the crest moves faster than the wave’s lowest point, the trough. When the height of the wave is about the same as the water’s depth, the wave breaks and surfers surf.If the bottom has just the right contour and the wind blows from land to sea or is still, a swell is transformed into a breaking wave that peels evenly to the left or the right, with the white water moving across the wave’s face like a steadily closing curtain. Steeper waves can pitch into a tube, allowing more skilled surfers to ride for a few seconds inside the barrel. A 30-second ride on an ocean wave is remarkably long, and few spots consistently offer barrels.In 2006, Slater, the world’s most famous surfer, approached Fincham, who took on the challenge of mimicking nature in a tank. “I had no idea who he was,” says Fincham, who grew up in Jamaica and began surfing only when he came to USC. To develop the wave, Slater founded his own eponymously named company, which promptly hired Fincham. Then Slater’s surfing experience came in. “It was [Fincham’s] job to figure out how to make that swell, and it was my job to figure out how to break that swell,” he says. It takes a shallow “reef” of just the right shape to turn a swell into a surfing wave. To fine-tune the shape of the pool bottom, the team relied on Slater’s input and on massively parallel supercomputers that often had to run for weeks at a time to complete a simulation. In silico, a wave is a mesh of millions of cells that represent air and water.Computations for each of the cells and how they interact with each other simulate the evolving wave as it develops a face and a barrel. The computations are “mathematically horrendous,” says Geoffrey Spedding, a USC fluid mechanics specialist who has collaborated with Fincham but had little input on this project.Fincham’s team transferred the lab findings to the Surf Ranch, a rectangular pool that was originally an artificial water skiing lake. The hydrofoil—imagine a vertically oriented, curved, stubby airplane wing—sits in water a few meters deep. It’s attached to a contraption that’s the size of a few train cars and, with the help of more than 150 truck tires and cables, runs down a track for the length of the pool at up to 30 kilometers per hour. This creates a soliton that stands more than 2 meters tall. The pool’s bottom, which has the springy feel of a yoga mat, has different slopes in different parts, and the contours determine when and how the soliton breaks. The patents also describe “actuators” in the hydrofoil that make it possible to adjust the size and shape of the wave to suit different skill levels. Kelly Slater, champion surfer The backers of the wave hope to one day build resorts around it that include hotels, retailers, and concert venues. The cells in this mesh represent air and water, and Fincham’s group made computations for each one and how they interact with each other. Adam Fincham (pictured), a fluid mechanics specialist at the University of Southern California, and champion surfer Kelly Slater used supercomputer simulations to refine their wave.last_img read more

Stick insects travel long distances—by being eaten by birds

first_img The team fed eggs from three species of stick insect to brown-eared bulbuls (Hypsipetes amaurotis, pictured), a medium-size bird that is common in eastern Asia and one of the main avian predators of stick insects in Japan. A few hours later the birds passed the eggs, and the researchers found that for each species, between 5% and 20% of the eggs had survived unharmed. A couple of eggs from one species, Ramulus irregulariterdentatus, even hatched, the team reports today in Ecology.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)If the strategy is one the insects have used in the past, there should be a correlation between the genetics of various stick insect species and bird flight paths. That’s something the team plans to investigate next. Hakuren Kato Stick insects travel long distances—by being eaten by birds By Michael AllenMay. 28, 2018 , 11:00 AMcenter_img Kobe University Stick insects can’t travel long distances by themselves, but they’ve somehow managed to spread far and wide, even dispersing across unconnected islands. Now, scientists have discovered one way they may have achieved this: being eaten by birds.Many plants use birds to disperse their seeds. Birds eat the fruits, move away from the plant, and then poop, depositing the plant’s seeds in a new location. When insects are eaten it is assumed that they and their unborn young don’t survive, but a team of researchers wondered whether a similar mechanism helps insects transport their offspring long distances. Stick insects make eggs that have a very hard shell, which can survive acidic environments, such as those in bird guts.last_img read more

Milan offer Zlatan €6m for 18 months

first_img Watch Serie A live in the UK on Premier Sports for just £11.99 per month including live LaLiga, Eredivisie, Scottish Cup Football and more. Visit: https://subscribe.premiersports.tv/ The ball is in Zlatan Ibrahimovic’s court, as Milan reportedly offered a six-month deal with an option to extend the contract for an additional year, worth a total €6m. The 38-year-old is set to leave MLS club LA Galaxy in December and a return to Milan looks very likely, after the reports on established contact between the player and club’s representatives. Now it’s reportedly up to the former Sweden international to make his choice, and the Gazzetta dello Sport claims that Milan has offered to pay the superstar €6m if he stays on for 18 months. It’s previously been suggested that Ibrahimovic would want €1m per month, but Milan look prepared to offer him one third of that. The initial deal offered by sporting director Zvonomir Boban to the player’s agent Mino Raiola is said to be a six-month contract. Over the phone, Zlatan has told Boban that he will decide on his future within a few weeks. Milan are back in Serie A action this weekend, when Napoli come to visit and need to respond from a slow start to the season, leaving them 14th in the League after 12 games.last_img read more

New Zealand hold world champs Italy to 1-1 draw

first_imgDefending champions Italy’s Cup hopes took a dent today with qualifiers New Zealand holding them to a 1-1 draw. [Follow live matchcast]Shane Smeltz provided New Zealand the lead with a strike in the seventh minute.Vincenzo Iaquinta equalised for Italy with a penalty strike in the 32nd minute.Italy had earlier drawn 1-1 with Paraguay, who are best placed in Group F to make the pre-quarters after beating Slovakia today.Later in the day, five-time winners Brazil will play Ivory Coast in a Group G game.last_img

Tussle on Bill

first_imgAjay MakenSports minister Ajay Maken is keen that the new sports law Bill gets passed.There are whispers in Shastri Bhawan about the latest effort by the babus in his ministry – ghostwriting columns for top athletes which get published in a top city newspaper.While some athletes have reluctantly agreed to lend their names for the exercise, much to the consternation of their respective sports federations, a few have refused to fall in line.The sports ministry believes that if athletes speak in favour of the proposed Bill, it could get past the cabinet and be presented in Parliament. However, sceptics say that with politicians from major parties involved in sports administration, this effort will be futile.last_img